Energy Efficiency Measures
The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) was made mandatory for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for all ships at MEPC 62 (July 2011) with the adoption of amendments to MARPOL Annex VI (resolution MEPC.203(62)), by Parties to MARPOL Annex VI. This was the first legally binding climate change treaty to be adopted since the Kyoto Protocol.
Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI)
The EEDI for new ships is the most important technical measure and aims at promoting the use of more energy efficient (less polluting) equipment and engines. The EEDI requires a minimum energy efficiency level per capacity mile (e.g. tonne mile) for different ship type and size segments. Since 1 January 2013, following an initial two year phase zero, new ship design needs to meet the reference level for their ship type. The level is to be tightened incrementally every five years, and so the EEDI is expected to stimulate continued innovation and technical development of all the components influencing the fuel efficiency of a ship from its design phase. The EEDI is a non-prescriptive, performance-based mechanism that leaves the choice of technologies to use in a specific ship design to the industry. As long as the required energy efficiency level is attained, ship designers and builders are free to use the most cost-efficient solutions for the ship to comply with the regulations. The EEDI provides a specific figure for an individual ship design, expressed in grams of carbon dioxide (CO2) per ship’s capacity-mile (the smaller the EEDI the more energy efficient ship design) and is calculated by a formula based on the technical design parameters for a given ship.
The CO2 reduction level (grams of CO2 per tonne mile) for the first phase is set to 10% and will be tightened every five years to keep pace with technological developments of new efficiency and reduction measures. Reduction rates have been established until the period 2025 and onwards when a 30% reduction is mandated for applicable ship types calculated from a reference line representing the average efficiency for ships built between 2000 and 2010. The EEDI is developed for the largest and most energy intensive segments of the world merchant fleet and will embrace emissions from new ships covering the following ship types: oil tankers, bulk carriers, gas carriers, general cargo ships, container ships, refrigerated cargo carriers and combination carriers. In 2014, MEPC adopted amendments to the EEDI regulations to extend the scope of EEDI to: LNG carriers, ro-ro cargo ships (vehicle carriers), ro-ro cargo ships; ro-ro passenger ships and cruise passenger ships having non-conventional propulsion. These amendments mean that ship types responsible for approximately 85% of the CO2 emissions from international shipping are incorporated under the international regulatory regime.
Since 2012, Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) adopted / approved or amended following important guidelines aimed at assisting the implementation of the mandatory regulations on Energy Efficiency for Ships in MARPOL Annex VI:
2014 Guidelines on survey and certification of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) (resolution MEPC.254(67))
2014 Guidelines on the method of calculation of the attained Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships (resolution MEPC.245(66))
2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) (resolution MEPC.231(65))
2013 Guidelines for calculation of reference lines for use with the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for cruise passenger ships having non-conventional propulsion (resolution MEPC.233(65))
2013 Interim guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions, as amended (resolutions MEPC.232(65) and MEPC.255(67))
2012 Guidelines for the development of a Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (resolution MEPC.213(65))
2013 Guidance on treatment of innovative energy efficiency technologies for calculation and verification of the attained EEDI (MEPC.1/Circ.815)
Interim Guidelines for the calculation of the coefficient fw for decrease in ship speed in a representative sea condition for trial use (MEPC.1/Circ.796)
The above Guidelines and resolutions are available here
Finalization and adoption / approval of the supporting guidelines / guidance was a significant achievement which provides sufficient lead time for Administrations and industry to prepare. The guidelines will support Member States in their uniform implementation of the new chapter 4 of MARPOL Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI)
The Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) is an operational measure that establishes a mechanism to improve the energy efficiency of a ship in a cost-effective manner. The SEEMP also provides an approach for shipping companies to manage ship and fleet efficiency performance over time using, for example, the Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) as a monitoring tool. The guidance on the development of the SEEMP for new and existing ships incorporates best practices for fuel efficient ship operation, as well as guidelines for voluntary use of the EEOI for new and existing ships (MEPC.1/Circ.684). The EEOI enables operators to measure the fuel efficiency of a ship in operation and to gauge the effect of any changes in operation, e.g. improved voyage planning or more frequent propeller cleaning, or introduction of technical measures such as waste heat recovery systems or a new propeller. The SEEMP urges the ship owner and operator at each stage of the plan to consider new technologies and practices when seeking to optimise the performance of a ship.
Model Course for energy efficient operation ships
IMO, together with the World Maritime University (WMU) has been developing a model course on SEEMP promoting the energy efficient operation of ships. The first draft of the model course was submitted to MEPC 62. It provides general background on the climate change issue and IMO’s related work and aims at building the different operational and technical tools into a manageable course programme, which will promulgate best practice throughout all sectors of the industry. The Course will help create benchmarks against which operators can assess their own performance. The purpose of the IMO model courses is to assist training providers and their teaching staff in organizing and introducing new training courses, or in enhancing, updating or supplementing existing training material, so that the quality and effectiveness of the training courses may thereby be improved.
MEPC 62 agreed that the draft model course was an excellent start to providing a structured training course. Following consideration by MEPC 63 to MEPC 65, IMO, in 2014, published IMO Model Course on Energy Efficient Operation of Ships (reference ET405E).
Further technical and operational measures to enhance the energy efficiency of ships
MEPC 67 (October 2014) agreed, in principle, to develop a data collection system for ships and, following deliberations in a working group, agreed on the general description of the data collection system for fuel consumption of ships, including its core elements as follows: data collection by ships, flag State functions in relation to data collection and establishment of a centralized database by the Organization.
Noting that further work should be undertaken intersessionally, MEPC 67 agreed to re-establish the correspondence group and instructed it to develop full language for the data collection system for fuel consumption that can be readily used for voluntary or mandatory application of the system. The group will report to MEPC 68 in May 2015.
Breakthrough at MEPC 62 –
Legally binding agreement to reduce CO2 emissions from international shipping
Debate on the adoption of technical and operational measures
In July 2011, MEPC 62 continued its consideration of making the developed technical and operational measures mandatory by adding a new chapter 4 on energy efficiency to MARPOL Annex VI – Regulations on the prevention of air pollution from ships. MEPC 62 was held from 11 to 15 July 2011 at IMO’s Headquarters in London. Very good momentum had been generated in the lead up to the session, during which parties involved in informal talks had showed great willingness to work out a compromise that could be accepted by all and be adopted by consensus.
A compromise proposal by Singapore (MEPC 62/6/21) included a possible phased-in implementation where administrations with the need for more time could waive the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) requirement for ships flying their flag for up to four years. A large number of delegations supported the proposal by Singapore and expressed interest in further consideration of how it could be incorporated in the draft regulatory text. Noting that an informal group convened by the MEPC Chairman was holding consultations with a view to seeking consensus among Member States on the proposed energy efficiency regulations, the Committee agreed that the proposal by Singapore provided scope for a compromise agreement as it contained elements around which a consensus could be built.
Assisted by an informal group convened by the Chairman, delegations embarked on negotiations involving capacity building and technical assistance to developing countries. Being well aware that capacity building and technical assistance to administrations without the needed human and financial resources are essential elements for any new regulations to be effectively implemented and enforced in the world fleet of merchant vessels, the Committee successfully reached a compromise solution. The new chapter includes a regulation on Promotion of technical co-operation and technology transfer related to the improvement of energy efficiency of ships, which requires Administrations, in co-operation with IMO and other international bodies, to promote and provide, as appropriate, support directly or through IMO to States, especially developing States, that request technical assistance. It also requires the Administration of a Party to co-operate actively with other Parties, subject to its national laws, regulations and policies, to promote the development and transfer of technology and exchange of information to States, which request technical assistance, particularly developing States, in respect of the implementation of measures to fulfil the new energy efficiency requirements.
On the challenging issue of application, a number of delegations opposed the possibility of port States to deny port entry for ships issued with an EEDI waiver as this would undermine the phased implementation, making the provision hollow. Other delegations felt the suggested timeline was excessive and should be shortened to one or maximum two years. Extensive informal negotiations were held until the Chairman was able to present to plenary a compromise text on a new chapter 4 on energy efficiency to be added to MARPOL Annex VI. The successful negotiations leading to a compromise text clearly indicated the Parties’ willingness to find workable solutions and to respond to the urgent need for all industries to contribute to the combined effort to halt climate change.
In the informal negotiations led by the Chairman, development of a draft MEPC resolution on capacity building, technical assistance and transfer of technology also took place to complement the regulatory text in order to strengthen the technical assistance to developing countries. The resolution was intended to be adopted together with the energy efficiency regulations as a package. However, while good progress had been made during the informal negotiations it was not possible to finalize the draft resolution by consensus as there were several issues where divergence could not be overcome. As a result, a number of delegations opposed the adoption of the energy efficiency regulations during MEPC 62. The Chairman stated that he would further develop the draft MEPC resolution on capacity building, technical assistance and transfer of technology with a view to its final adoption at MEPC 63.
All delegations that intervened in the ensuing plenary debate expressed their admiration for the Chairman’s strenuous efforts to bring all Members together and produce a text on the basis of which consensus might be reached. In this respect, some delegations considered that additional amendments and clarifications were required before adoption of the proposed text could be further considered, while other delegations were of the view that the text presented by the Chairman was the most delicate of compromises and should be considered as the final text for adoption.
Adoption of mandatory technical and operational measures
The Secretary-General congratulated the Chairman and delegations for their hard work and statesmanlike attitude in drafting the compromise text. Recalling his opening remarks appealing to all Members to compromise, and noting that the proposed text had been carefully crafted on the basis of concessions made by all engaged in the consultations, he commended the text to the Committee as it represented a well-balanced outcome that was workable in today’s shipping reality and which also preserved the universality of IMO’s regulations and the unity of its membership. In turn, the Chairman thanked the Committee for its trust in his leadership on the issue, and commended the text inviting the Committee to adopt it.
The majority of delegations that responded to the Chairman’s invitation supported adoption. However, the delegation of Saudi Arabia requested that a vote be held on adoption of the aforementioned draft amendments and the delegation of Brazil requested that the vote be undertaken by a roll-call. 59 of the 64 Parties to MARPOL Annex VI were present and eligible to vote. The following outcome of the roll call vote should be noted:
Yes: 49 Parties: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Bulgaria, Canada, Cook Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kiribati, Latvia, Liberia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Samoa, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tuvalu, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Vanuatu
No: 5 Parties: Brazil, Chile, China, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia
Abstain: 2 Parties: Jamaica, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Not present in the room: 3 Parties: Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Syrian Arab Republic
The roll call vote resulted in the adoption of mandatory measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping by Parties to MARPOL Annex VI representing the first ever mandatory global GHG reduction regime for an international industry sector.
The yes-voting countries represent (roughly 80%) of the world’s merchant shipping tonnage flagged in developing or developed countries. Moreover, the universality of the regulatory measures now introduced into MARPOL Annex VI is well illustrated by the yes-voting countries as they represent all regions of the world – both exporters and importers, as well as the largest flag States, most of the large ship building nations and many of the countries such as the Pacific Islands States, that are most likely to suffer first from the effects of climate change. Furthermore, the yes-voting countries represent about 75% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from international shipping which, augurs well for the environmental effectiveness of the new IMO treaty obligations.
The amendments to MARPOL Annex VI Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships, add a new chapter 4 to Annex VI on Regulations on energy efficiency for ships to make mandatory the EEDI for new ships, and the SEEMP for all ships (resolution MEPC.203(62)). Other amendments add new definitions and requirements for survey and certification, including the format for the new International Energy Efficiency Certificate. The new regulations apply to all merchant ships of 400 gross tonnage and above regardless of the national flag they fly or the nationality of the owner, and are expected to enter into force globally on 1 January 2013. However, an Administration that considers that it on its industry needs more time to comply may waive the requirement for new ships from complying with the EEDI for up to four years.
The adoption by IMO of mandatory reduction measures for all ships from 2013 and onwards will lead to significant emission reductions and also a striking cost saving for the shipping industry. By 2020, up to 200 million tonnes of annual CO2 reductions are estimated from the introduction of the EEDI for new ships and the SEEMP for all ships in operation, a figure that, by 2030, will increase to 420 million tonnes of CO2 annually. In other words, the reductions will in 2020 be between 10 and 17%, and by 2030 between 19 and 26% compared with business as usual. The reduction measures will also result in a significant saving in fuel costs to the shipping industry, although these savings require deeper investments in more efficient ships and more sophisticated technologies than the business as usual scenario. The annual fuel cost saving estimates states a staggering figure of $20 to 80 billion by 2020, and even more astonishing $90 – 310 billion by 2030.
The amendments to MARPOL Annex VI making energy efficiency standards mandatory constitute the first international climate change treaty provisions to be formally adopted since the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 and the first ever globally binding instrument introducing energy efficiency regulations for any international industry sector.
Commenting at the close of the session, on the outcome of MEPC, IMO Secretary-General Efthimios E. Mitropoulos expressed satisfaction at the many and various significant achievements with which the session should be credited. “Although not by consensus – which of course would be the ideal outcome – the Committee has now adopted amendments to MARPOL Annex VI introducing mandatory technical and operational measures for the energy efficiency of ships. Let us hope that the work to follow on these issues will enable all Members to join in, so that the service to the environment the measures aim at will be complete,” he said.
MEPC 62 agreed a work plan to continue the work on energy efficiency measures for ships, to include the development of EEDI frameworks for ship types and sizes, and propulsion systems, not covered by the current EEDI requirements and the development of EEDI and SEEMP-related guidelines. An intersessional working group meeting on energy efficiency measures for ships is scheduled to take place in January 2012 and will report its progress to MEPC 63 (February/March 2012). The interssional working group is tasked with:
1. further improving, with a view to finalization at MEPC 63, draft Guidelines on the method of calculation of the EEDI for new ships; draft Guidelines for the development of a SEEMP; draft Guidelines on Survey and Certification of the EEDI; and draft interim Guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power and speed to enable safe manoeuvring in adverse weather conditions;
2. considering the development of EEDI frameworks for other ship types and propulsion systems not covered by the draft Guidelines on the method of calculation of the EEDI for new ships;
3. dentifying the necessity of other guidelines or supporting documents for technical and operational measures; considering the EEDI reduction rates for larger tankers and bulk carriers; and
4. considering the improvement of the guidelines on the Ship Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) (MEPC.1/Circ.684).
Comments on the Adoption of Regulations on Energy Efficiency for Ships by the UN Superiors and IMO Secretary-General
Following the session, the IMO’s Secretary-General wrote to his counterparts in the UN system stating:
“I am very pleased to inform you of the decision of Parties to MARPOL Annex VI ... to adopt mandatory requirements introducing energy efficiency standards, which are aimed at the reduction of GHG emissions from ships engaged on international voyages.
The amendments were adopted by an overwhelming majority of the Parties concerned, representing regions from across the globe and 79%, by tonnage, of the world’s merchant fleet. The fact the amendments do not differentiate between flag States augurs well for the environment effectiveness of the standards adopted and, indeed, it may be said that the regulatory regime now put in place by IMO, with an expected entry into force date of 1 January 2013, constitutes the first ever global mandatory GHG reduction regime for an international industry sector.
This was an historical landmark in IMO’s work, leaving the environment as the sole winner in intensive negotiations that lasted four and a half years. It has come as a testimony to IMO’s ability to rise to the circumstances and deliver a substantial contribution to the world’s efforts to address climate change. I hope it sets a precedent to follow.
I will be very happy to present the outcome of MEPC 62 to the forthcoming United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP 17) in Durban, where I would expect the world community to reiterate its trust in IMO continuing its perennial efforts to protect and preserve the environment, both marine and atmospheric.”
In acknowledgement of the decision of the Parties to MARPOL Annex VI to adopt mandatory requirements introducing energy efficiency standards, which are aimed at the reduction of GHG emissions from ships engaged on international voyages, Mr. Ban Kin-moon, UN Secretary-General and Mrs. Christiana Figueres, UNFCCC Executive Director wrote to IMO’s Secretary-General:
Mr. Ban Kin-moon, UN Secretary-General:
“I would like to congratulate you on this significant outcome reached at IMO’s MEPC 62. This underscores the fact that IMO is the best positioned to play a leadership role in addressing GHG emission from international shipping. This is indeed very welcome progress.
I am confident that your presentation of the IMO outcome in this regard to the seventeenth session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 17) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Durban in December 2011 could make a positive contribution to the respective discussions within UNFCCC.
I commend you and your colleagues in the IMO Secretariat for achieving this important outcome.”
Mrs. Christiana Figueres, UNFCCC Executive Director:
“I would like to congratulate you on this outstanding result, which for the first time in history establishes a global mandatory GHG emission reduction regime for an entire economic sector. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has certainly proven its strong leadership and commitment in addressing GHG emissions from international shipping. This success is a result of the untiring efforts of the IMO secretariat which, through its continuous work and high level of commitment, laid the foundation for this exceptional decision.
The adoption of mandatory efficiency standards for international shipping is a major step and a substantial contribution of the international shipping sector to global efforts in addressing climate change...
I would very much welcome IMO presenting the outcome of MEPC 62 and its contribution to global climate change actions to the Parties under the UNFCCC at the forthcoming COP 17 ... We encourage you to do so in the context of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, where Parties have invited the IMO secretariat to report in its relevant work on climate change...
Let me in this context reiterate the commitment of the UNFCCC secretariat to continuing to support and work collaboratively with IMO, its secretariat and Marine Environment Protection Committee, so as to ensure further progress on limiting and reducing GHG emissions from international shipping.
Thank you once again for your leadership and unfailing work in addressing this issue...”
IMO has recognized that provision of reception facilities is crucial for effective MARPOL implementation, and the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) has strongly encouraged Member States, particularly those Parties to MARPOL as port States, to fulfil their treaty obligations on providing adequate reception facilities.
In March 2006, MEPC 54 emphasized the importance of adequate reception facilities in the chain of implementation of MARPOL, and stated that the policy of "zero tolerance of illegal discharges from ships" could only be effectively enforced when there were adequate reception facilities in ports. Therefore the Committee urged all Parties to MARPOL, particularly port States, to fulfil their treaty obligations to provide reception facilities for wastes generated during the normal operation of ships. The Committee also agreed to develop a port reception facility database (PRFD) as a module of the IMO Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS). The PRFD was designed to allow Member States to update the Database via a log-in password, and to allow the public to access all the information in the Database on a view-only basis. The Database went live to the public on 1 March 2006.
Action Plan to tackle the inadequacy of port reception facilities
In October 2006, MEPC 55 approved an Action Plan to tackle the alleged inadequacy of port reception facilities - seen as a major hurdle to overcome in order to achieve full compliance with MARPOL. The Plan was developed by the Sub-Committee on Flag State Implementation (FSI) in order to contribute to the effective implementation of MARPOL and to promote quality and environmental consciousness among administrations and shipping.
The Plan contained work items aimed at improving the provision and use of adequate port reception facilities, including work items relating to reporting requirements; provision of information on port reception facilities; identification of any technical problems encountered during the transfer of waste between ship and shore and the standardization of garbage segregation requirements and containment identification; review of the type and amount of wastes generated on board and the type and capacity of port reception facilities; revision of the IMO Comprehensive Manual on Port Reception Facilities; and development of a guide to good practice on port reception facility providers and users. With regard to regional arrangements, in March 2012, MEPC 63 adopted, by resolution MEPC.216(63),the amendments to MARPOL Annex V, which provides that Small Island Developing States (SIDS) may satisfy the relevant requirements of reception facilities through regional arrangements when, because of those States’ unique circumstances, such arrangements are the only practical means to satisfy these requirements.
As part of the work on the Action Plan a standard Advance Notification Form was developed to enhance the smooth implementation and uniform application of this requirement, thus minimizing the risk of a ship incurring delay. Also, a standard Waste Delivery Notification form was developed to provide uniformity of records throughout the world.
Also, under its work on the Action Plan, FSI developed the Guide of good practice on port reception facility providers and users, which provides guidance and easy reference to good practices related to the use and provision of port reception facilities as well as a list of applicable regulations and guidelines.
In April 2014, MEPC 66 adopted, by circular MEPC.1/circ.834, the Consolidated guidance for port reception facility providers and users, which consolidates in a single document the Guide to good practice for port reception facility providers and users (MEPC.1/Circ.671/Rev.1) and four other circulars related to port reception facilities (MEPC.1/Circ.469/Rev.2, MEPC.1/Circ.644/Rev.1, MEPC.1/Circ.645/Rev.1 and MEPC.1/Circ.470/Rev.1).
Annex VI: Air Pollution – Emission Control Areas (ECA) North Sea Baltic Sea area North American area United States Caribbean Sea area (see paragraph 24) Note: Requirements may vary for each special area; therefore mariners should consult the relevant MARPOL Annex or IMO circular for specific details.
22 The Special Area requirements for several of these areas have not taken effect because of lack of notifications from MARPOL Parties whose coastlines border the relevant Special Areas on the existence of adequate reception facilities (regulations 38.6 of MARPOL Annex I, 13.2 of MARPOL Annex IV and 8.2 of MARPOL Annex V). While this remains the case, the shipping and port industry should endeavour to meet the requirements as if the Special Area status of those areas had taken effect as per the spirit of MARPOL.
23 MARPOL Annex II contains more stringent discharge restrictions specific to certain geographical areas (listed along with information relating to Special Areas on the IMO website). In the Antarctic Area, no noxious liquid substances may be discharged (Annex II, regulation 13.8.2).
24 MARPOL Annex VI provides for Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North Sea and Baltic Sea Areas where SOx emissions must be restricted through use of lower sulphur fuels or exhaust gas cleaning technologies (Annex VI, regulation 14.4). The revision of Annex VI, which came into force on 1 July 2010, provides for even stricter controls for SOx within ECAs and allows for other areas to be designated as ECAs for SOx, NOx and particulate matter.
The designated North American area took effect on 1 August 2012 and the designated United States Caribbean Sea area took effect on 1 January 2014. 25 Shipowners/operators and port operators should be conscious that these restrictions further emphasize the importance of the general obligations to provide adequate reception facilities for MARPOL residues/wastes. In all cases when shipping companies encounter inadequate reception facilities, those allegations should be reported accurately and in a timely MEPC.1/Circ.834 Annex, page 7 I:\CIRC\MEPC\01\834.doc manner via the ship's flag State to the Organization and to the appropriate port State authorities or port operators, using the suggested format for reporting (see appendix 1).
GISIS Port Reception Facility Database
The Internet-based Port Reception Facility Database (PRFD) went live on 1 March 2006, as a module of the IMO Global Integrated Shipping Information System (GISIS).
The database provides data on facilities for the reception of all categories of ship-generated waste. The public is allowed free access, following a simple initial registration, to all the information on a view-only basis. Data for reception facilities can be updated only by the respective Member States via a log-in password. Information on password administration for Member States has been made available in Circular Letter 2892 and in Circular Letter 2683.
The circulars and the database are aimed at improving the rate of reporting alleged on inadequacies of reception facilities so that the problem can be tackled more effectively.
SHIPS and EQUIPMENT
to Hydrogen gas Pipe Line Grids
to Fixed Hdyroegn Fuel Engine and Fuel Cells.
Electric Power Plants, Water Pumps ,Land Based Ship Powering,
Rapid Charging Stations