Stanley Meyer Hydrogen Nitros Oxides exhaust re cycle circuit.
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Dear Reader, it is my belief that there is no reason we cannot be using hydrogen right now to fuel our machines globally.
THE TECH IS IN PLACE ALREADY.
Below you will see that infact most of the tech is already deployed on some makes and models of cars.
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PLease read on about the exhaust re cycle systems in the market already and discover how this can be readily adpated for hydorgen.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
The exhaust gas recirculation valve (EGR valve) recirculates a portion of the exhaust gas back into the combustion chamber, which helps your vehicle produce fewer oxides of nitrogen, a major pollutant.
Symptoms of Wear or Failure
Check Engine Light may come on
Vehicle may fail emissions tests
Engine "pinging" on acceleration
Related Repair Advice
The entire EGR system should be inspected and cleaned (if necessary) when an EGR valve is replaced
The EGR valve can be operated by engine vacuum or an electric solenoid(s)
High oxides of nitrogen (HOx) are a result of high temperature and/or pressure in the combustion chamber. Allowing exhaust gases into the combustion chamber lowers the combustion temperature.
On certain engines, the EGR valve could potentially be installed backward, resulting in illumination of the Check Engine Light and a rough idle condition
In The Meyer Image on the right you can see he did this with seperated solenoids , most likely to get a little pressure and ability to plumb in several way as he was in development.
HACK YOUR EGR FOR HYDORGEN RECYCLE
In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines.
EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. In a gasoline engine, this inert exhaust displaces the amount of combustible matter in the cylinder. In a diesel engine, the exhaust gas replaces some of the excess oxygen in the pre-combustion mixture.
Because NOx forms primarily when a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen is subjected to high temperature, the lower combustion chamber temperatures caused by EGR reduces the amount of NOx the combustion generates. Most modern engines now require exhaust gas recirculation to meet emissions standards.
The first EGR systems were crude; some were as simple as an orifice jet between the exhaust and intake tracts which admitted exhaust to the intake tract whenever the engine was running. Difficult starting, rough idling, and reduced performance and fuel economy resulted. By 1973, an EGR valve controlled by manifold vacuum opened or closed to admit exhaust to the intake tract only under certain conditions. Control systems grew more sophisticated as automakers gained experience; Chrysler's "Coolant Controlled Exhaust Gas Recirculation" system of 1973 exemplified this evolution: a coolant temperature sensor blocked vacuum to the EGR valve until the engine reached normal operating temperatureThis prevented driveability problems due to unnecessary exhaust induction; NOx forms under elevated temperature conditions generally not present with a cold engine. Moreover, the EGR valve was controlled, in part, by vacuum drawn from the carburetor's venturi, which allowed more precise constraint of EGR flow to only those engine load conditions under which NOx is likely to form. Later, backpressure transducers were added to the EGR valve control to further tailor EGR flow to engine load conditions. Most modern engines now need exhaust gas recirculation to meet emissions standards. However, recent innovations have led to the development of engines that do not require them. The 3.6 Chrysler Pentastar engine is one example that does not require EGR.
When combustion temperatures exceed 2500 degree F., atmospheric nitrogen begins to react with oxygen during combustion. The result is various compounds called nitrogen oxides (NOX), which play a major role in urban air pollution. To reduce the formation of NOX, combustion temperatures must be kept below the NOX threshold. This is done by recirculating a small amount of exhaust through the "exhaust gas recirculation," or EGR. valve.
The EGR valve controls a small passageway between the intake and exhaust manifolds. When the valve opens, intake vacuum draws exhaust through the valve. This dilutes the incoming air/fuel mixture and has a quenching effect on combustion temperatures which keeps NOX within acceptable limits. As an added benefit, it also reduces the engine's octane requirements which lessens the danger of detonation (spark knock).
The EGR valve consists of a poppet valve and a vacuum diaphragm. When vacuum is applied to the EGR valve diaphragm, it pulls the valve open allowing exhaust to pass from the exhaust manifold into the intake manifold. Some engines have "positive backpressure" EGR valves, while others have "negative backpressure" EGR valves. Both types contain a second diaphragm that modulates the action of the valve. This prevents the valve from opening unless there is a certain level of exhaust backpressure in the system. EGR valves are calibrated for specific engine applications. The wrong valve may flow too much or not enough exhaust and cause emission, driveability and detonation problems.
EGR valves do not normally require maintenance or replacement for preventative maintenance. But the valve can become clogged with carbon deposits that cause it to stick or prevent it from closing properly. Dirty EGR valves can sometimes be cleaned, but replacement is necessary if the valve is defective.
Some newer engines are so clean from a NOX emissions standpoint that no EGR valve is required.
EGR in spark-ignited engines
In a typical automotive spark-ignited (SI) engine, 5 to 15 percent of the exhaust gas is routed back to the intake as EGR. The maximum quantity is limited by the requirement of the mixture to sustain a contiguous flame front during the combustion event; excessive EGR in poorly set up applications can cause misfires and partial burns. Although EGR does measurably slow combustion, this can largely be compensated for by advancing spark timing. The impact of EGR on engine efficiency largely depends on the specific engine design, and sometimes leads to a compromise between efficiency and NOx emissions. A properly operating EGR can theoretically increase the efficiency of gasoline engines via several mechanisms:
Reduced throttling losses. The addition of inert exhaust gas into the intake system means that for a given power output, the throttle plate must be opened further, resulting in increased inlet manifold pressure and reduced throttling losses.
Reduced heat rejection. Lowered peak combustion temperatures not only reduces NOx formation, it also reduces the loss of thermal energy to combustion chamber surfaces, leaving more available for conversion to mechanical work during the expansion stroke.
Reduced chemical dissociation. The lower peak temperatures result in more of the released energy remaining as sensible energy near TDC (Top Dead-Center), rather than being bound up (early in the expansion stroke) in the dissociation of combustion products. This effect is minor compared to the first two.
It also decreases the efficiency of gasoline engines via at least one more mechanism:
Reduced specific heat ratio. A lean intake charge has a higher specific heat ratio than an EGR mixture. A reduction of specific heat ratio reduces the amount of energy that can be extracted by the piston.
EGR is typically not employed at high loads because it would reduce peak power output. This is because it reduces the intake charge density. EGR is also omitted at idle (low-speed, zero load) because it would cause unstable combustion, resulting in rough idle. The EGR valve also cools the exhaust valves and makes them last far longer (a very important benefit under light cruise conditions).
Since the EGR system recirculates a portion of exhaust gases, over time the valve can become clogged with carbon deposits that prevent it from operating properly. Clogged EGR valves can sometimes be cleaned, but replacement is necessary if the valve is faulty.
Usually, an engine recirculates exhaust gas by piping it from the exhaust manifold to the inlet manifold. This design is called external EGR. A control valve (EGR Valve) within the circuit regulates and times the gas flow. Some engines incorporate a camshaft with relatively large overlap during which both the intake valve and the exhaust valve are open, thus trapping exhaust gas within the cylinder by not fully expelling it during the exhaust stroke. A form of internal EGR is used in the rotary Atkinson cycle engine.
EGR can also be implemented by using a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) which uses variable inlet guide vanes to build sufficient backpressure in the exhaust manifold. For EGR to flow, a pressure difference is required across the intake and exhaust manifold and this is created by the VGT.
Another method that has been experimented with, is using a throttle in a turbocharged diesel engine to decrease the intake pressure, thereby initiating EGR flow.
Modern systems utilizing electronic engine control computers, multiple control inputs, and servo-driven EGR valves typically improve performance/efficiency with no impact on drivability.
In diesel engines
By feeding the lower oxygen exhaust gas into the intake, diesel EGR systems lower combustion temperature, reducing emissions of NOx. This makes combustion less efficient, compromising economy and power. The normally "dry" intake system of a diesel engine is now subject to fouling from soot, unburned fuel and oil in the EGR bleed, which has little effect on airflow, however, when combined with oil vapour from a PCV system, can cause buildup of sticky tar in the intake manifold and valves. It can also cause problems with components such as swirl flaps, where fitted.
Diesel EGR also increases soot production, though this was masked in the US by the simultaneous introduction of diesel particulate filters EGR systems can also add abrasive contaminants and increase engine oil acidity, which in turn can reduce engine longevity.
Though engine manufacturers have refused to release details of the effect of EGR on fuel economy, the EPA regulations of 2002 that led to the introduction of cooled EGR were associated with a 3% drop in engine efficiency, bucking a trend of a .5% a year increase.
Heywood, John B., "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals," McGraw Hill, 1988.
van Basshuysen, Richard, and Schäfer, Fred, "Internal Combustion Engine Handbook," SAE International, 2004.
"Bosch Automotive Handbook," 3rd Edition, Robert Bosch GmbH, 1993.
^ "1973 Cleaner Air System Highlights" — Chrysler Corporation, imperialclub.com
^ "2011 Dodge Challenger Officially Revealed With 305-HP Pentastar V6". autoguide.com. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valves Types
Port Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
The port exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve contains a diaphragm with a sealed vacuum chamber above the diaphragm. A vacuum outlet from this chamber is connected to control vacuum. A stem extends from the diaphragm to a tapered valve in the lower part of the EGR valve. A spring above the diaphragm forces the diaphragm downward and seats the tapered valve on a matching seat in the lower valve body. A passage is connected from the exhaust manifold to the tapered valve and seat.
A passage is connected from the top of the tapered valve to the intake manifold. Vacuum is usually supplied to the EGR valve diaphragm chamber through a solenoid controlled by the PCM. When vacuum is supplied to the diaphragm chamber, the diaphragm, stem, and valve are lifted upward, which allows some exhaust gas to recirculate from the exhaust manifold into the intake manifold. Since this exhaust gas contains very little oxygen, it does not burn in the combustion chambers, and combustion temperature is reduced. This action decreases oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Positive Backpressure EGR Valve
The positive backpressure EGR valve has a bleed port and valve positioned in the center of the diaphragm. A light spring holds this bleed valve normally open (NO), and an exhaust passage is connected from the lower end of the tapered valve through the stem to the bleed valve. The area under the diaphragm is vented to the atmosphere. When the engine is running, exhaust pressure is applied to the bleed valve. At low engine speeds, exhaust pressure is not high enough to close the bleed valve. If control vacuum is supplied to the diaphragm chamber, the vacuum is bled off through the bleed port, and the valve remains closed.
As engine and vehicle speed increase, the exhaust pressure also increases. At a preset throttle opening, the exhaust pressure closes the EGR valve bleed port. When control vacuum is supplied to the diaphragm, the diaphragm and valve are lifted upward, and the valve is open. If vacuum from an external source is supplied to a positive backpressure EGR valve with the engine not running, the valve will not open, because the vacuum is bled off through the bleed port.
Negative Backpressure EGR Valve
In a negative backpressure EGR valve, a normally closed (NC) bleed port is positioned in the center of the diaphragm. An exhaust passage is connected from the lower end of the tapered valve through the stem to the bleed valve.
When the engine is running at lower speeds, each time a cylinder fires and an exhaust valve opens, there is a high-pressure pulse in the exhaust system. However, between these high-pressure pulses, there are low-pressure pulses. As the engine speed increases, more cylinder firings occur in a given time, and the high pressure pulses become closer together in the exhaust system. At low speed with fewer cylinder firings in a given amount of time, the negative exhaust pulses are more predominant compared to higher engine speeds.
At lower engine and vehicle speeds, the negative pulses in the exhaust system hold the bleed valve open. When the engine and vehicle speed increase to a preset value, the negative exhaust pressure pulses decrease, and the bleed valve closes. Under this condition, if control vacuum is supplied to the diaphragm chamber, the EGR valve is opened. When vacuum from an external source is supplied to a negative backpressure EGR valve with the engine not running, the bleed port is closed, and the vacuum should open the valve.
Negative or positive backpressure EGR valves may be identified by an N or a P stamped on top of the valve with the part number and plant code identification.
Linear EGR Valve
The linear EGR valve contains a single electric solenoid that is operated by the PCM. A tapered pintle is positioned on the end of the solenoid plunger. When the solenoid is energized, the plunger and tapered valve are lifted, and exhaust gas is allowed to recirculate into the intake manifold
Five terminals on the linear EGR valve are connected to the PCM. The EGR solenoid winding is connected to terminals A and E. The EGR valve contains an EGR valve position (EVP) sensor that has a ground terminal (B), a signal terminal (C), and a 5-V input terminal (D). The EVP sensor contains a linear potentiometer. The signal from this sensor varies from approximately 1 V with the EGR valve closed to 4.5 V with the valve wide open.
The PCM pulses the EGR solenoid winding on and off with a pulse width modulation (PWM) principle to provide accurate control of the plunger and EGR flow. The EVP sensor acts as a feedback signal to the PCM to inform the PCM if the commanded valve position was achieved.
EGR Valve with Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor
Some EGR valves, particularly on vehicles sold in California, contain an exhaust gas temperature sensor. This sensor contains a thermistor that changes resistance in relation to temperature. An increase in exhaust temperature decreases the sensor resistance. Two wires are connected from the exhaust gas temperature sensor to the PCM. The PCM senses the voltage drop across this sensor. Cool exhaust temperature and higher sensor resistance cause a high-voltage signal to the PCM, whereas hot exhaust temperature and low sensor resistance result in a low-voltage signal to the PCM.
Ported Vacuum Switch
Another component that may be a part of your vehicle's EGR system is a "ported vacuum switch" (PVS), which may also be called a "thermal vacuum valve" or "temperature vacuum valve" (TVS). The switch controls the passage of vacuum that operates the EGR valve.
This device is a heat-sensitive switch that remains closed until the engine's coolant reaches a certain temperature. The PVS screws into the intake manifold, thermostat housing or engine so the heat-sensing element is in contact with the engine's coolant. Inside the switch is a wax plug that pushes a sliding plunger to uncover or block vacuum ports in the switch. As the engine heats up, the wax expands and pushes the plunger up until it uncovers or blocks the vacuum port. At this point, vacuum to the device that the switch controls is either applied or blocked. Severe engine overheating can damage the switch, making replacement necessary.
Vacuum Control Solenoid
A solenoid is another device that is often used to control vacuum to the EGR valve. A solenoid is a magnetic coil attached to a plunger that uncovers or blocks a vacuum port. The solenoid vacuum port may be normally open or closed depending on the application. When voltage is applied to the solenoid, the coil moves the plunger which either opens or blocks the vacuum port. Voltage to the solenoid may be routed through a relay or timer and is usually controlled by the engine computer on newer cars.
When used to control the vacuum to an EGR valve on a late model engine, the engine computer will wait to energize the solenoid until the engine is warm and is operating above a certain rpm.
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WE are HAcking this EGR exisiting system to recylce hydrogen!!!! Thats right hack it adjust it and monitorit by flashing the ecu etc !!! use the temp sensor in a diferent way and make stans methods happen.
Recycling exhuast gas lowers oxygen and burn rate and can exffect fuel performance.
Except if you don't use fuel & you use Hydrogen than it slow the burn rate of hydrogen to co equal gasoline.
So the knowledge of how systems work for gasoline is important we basically throw the gasoline method out the window and use the same part adjust with euc to drive Hydrogen on demand And wa la hey presto you rocking !!!! get on it!!. at this time I recommend using electric solenoid type not vacumm pressure ERG's so you have more control.